A resistance spot welding system includes an electrode with a cap that includes a tip having an outer surface that defines a pocket, and an electrical insulator positioned within the pocket. A method of manufacturing the electrode includes forming a pocket in the outer surface of the tip of the electrode cap, and positioning the electrical insulator within the pocket. A method of resistance spot welding includes positioning a first metal sheet and a second metal sheet between two electrodes where at least one of the two electrodes includes the cap with the electrical insulator. A weld nugget joining a first metal sheet with a second metal sheet includes a center region surrounded by an outer region, and a thickness of the center region is less than a thickness of the outer region.
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Lester, Patrick; Lin, Dechao; Nazro, Louis; Wu, Zhuoru; and Zhu, Dewei, "Electrode Cap with Electrical Insulator and Related Methods", Technical Disclosure Commons, (September 06, 2023)