In non-standalone architecture (NSA), a migration path to 5G, there is no easy way for a billing module to differentiate 5G data from LTE data, since most messages and attributes are by design kept identical to LTE. This disclosure describes techniques to enable a serving/PDN-gateway (SPGW) node to simulate a change in radio access technology (RAT) based on the IP ranges of the radio nodes. Online, RAT-based charging for data subscribers in the 5G NSA network can thereby be supported by the SPGW. The techniques have minimal impact on the overall ecosystem. In particular, other core or radio nodes need no modifications. There is minimal performance impact on the SPGW. Online charging is supported with the same features as available to communication service providers (CSPs) today.
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Chadha, Naunidh Singh, "Differential Charging on Non-Standalone 5G Networks", Technical Disclosure Commons, (March 08, 2023)