There is an emerging business model of Printed Circuit Assembly (PCA) board design and fabrication that favors extensive outsourcing and integration in the PCA board life cycle to lower manufacturing costs. With the increasing complexity of modern PCA boards and growing reliance on third-party entities make PCA board hardware attacks an increasing concern. Malicious actors may remove or add components, thus creating attack vectors against fabricated PCA boards that can either cause malfunction, leak secret information, cause a denial of service, install remote access trojans, and so on. The invention described here helps us to automatically detect missing and extra components in PCA boards. The proposed system receives an image of a PCA board, performs a sequence of image processing steps to aid component discovery and returns the coordinates of each discovered component then analyses them to locate missing/extra components.
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INC, HP, "SYSTEM TO AUTOMATICALLY DETECT MISSING AND EXTRA COMPONENTS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY", Technical Disclosure Commons, (February 07, 2023)