Described are metal products including metal alloy substrates joined by self-piercing rivets, and methods and apparatus for joining metal alloy substrates using self-piercing rivets. For high-strength metal alloy substrates, the disclosed joining techniques involve retrogressing portions of the metal alloy substrates, such as by heating using a laser heating source, a conductive heating source, or an inductive heating source, to produce crack-free joined metal products.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.