Supporting flexible transceiver types and high-density in servers and switches requires significant overhead in server and switch designs. Some switch systems use line cards to modularly implement different product options, such as fabric protocols and fabric interface signal lane counts. This requires large PCB and high lane-count right-angle electrical midplane connectors that are typically large, causing signal integrity and airflow blockage issues. Other implementations use hot-pluggable transceivers that are difficult to cool within metal cages (e.g., standard pluggable transceiver modules) and require right-angle connectors, while some designs use embedded mid-board optics transceivers that are not hot-pluggable or replaceable.

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