This disclosure describes techniques to determine individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) using a large number of three-dimensional (3D) printed human subject models. Per techniques of this disclosure, 3D printing technology is utilized to generate multiple head model structures, ear model structure, and neck and torso structures of different sizes and shapes to mimic heads and ears observed in human subjects. The head models and ear models are combined in different ways with different neck and torso structures and accessories to create hundreds to thousands customized subject models. The created subject models are used to measure HRTFs. In some examples, the heads and pinnae are directly printed in soft silicone rubber by utilizing specialized 3D printers that can precisely create models that accurately mimic how sound reflects off human skin. In other examples, a female mold casting shell is first 3D printed, which can be filled with materials of varying shore hardness. The use of 3D printed components that can be combined to generate a large number of subject models enables accurate measurement of a large number of high-quality HRTFs at scale without requiring human subjects.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.