In the existing technology, during RSW cooling, the plastic deformation zone will not return back to its original position, but the weld metal shrinkage requires more metals, therefore a tensile stress creates that could end up with a hot cracking. New in this idea: 1) An auxiliary heating ring around the electrode is added to provide assistance that the weld metal under electrode requires; 2) In the RSW heating, metal expansion at HAZ zone will generate a minimized or nonplastic deformation zone; and 3) In the metal cooling, metal under elastic deformation condition could return back to its original position to minimize the tensile stress level around the RSW weld. In addition, the auxiliary heating expands the HAZ metal to give weld metal a potential compressive stress or a minimized tensile stress. This minimizes the hot cracking.

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