To enable merchants and other persons to verify the validity and/or authenticity of paper currency notes, a digital signature can be applied to the currency notes. The digital signature is generated based on a serial number included on the note and a private key. Persons can verify the authenticity of the notes by sending either the serial number and signature, or a photograph of the note, to a server. The server can indicate whether the signature is valid for the serial number, indicating the authenticity of the note. In case of counterfeit notes that duplicate the serial numbers and signatures of valid notes, the server can track the verifications of notes, and if the same note is verified at remote locations within a short time span, the note, locations, and time can be flagged to follow up for a possible duplicated, counterfeit note.
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Alicherry, Mansoor, "Verifying Authenticity of Currency and Tracking Duplicates", Technical Disclosure Commons, (June 29, 2017)