Disclosed is an approach for determining camera rotation relative to an individual’s eye, which could then be used for applications such as calibration-free estimation of user-specific bending of a device (e.g., a head-mountable device (HMD)), among others. Due to biological conditions, an average gaze vector of an eye most often corresponds to a straight-forward gaze by an individual. Therefore, the average gaze vector is often known with respect to a coordinate system of an individual’s eye. Additionally, when the HMD is worn by a user, the HMD uses an eye-facing camera to determine the average gaze vector of the user’s eye with respect to the eye-facing camera’s coordinate system. Given information about the average gaze vector with respect to multiple coordinate systems, the HMD uses this information as basis for determining an orientation of the eye-facing camera when the HMD is worn by the user. By then comparing the determined orientation to a known orientation of the eye-facing camera when the HMD is unworn or otherwise not bent, the HMD determines rotation of the eye-facing camera in three-dimensional space, which corresponds to an extent that the HMD (e.g., the HMD’s frame) has bent from an unworn position to a worn position.

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