Some printers use an ink pressure sensor (PIP), that compares the ink pressure to the air
pressure of the Air Pressure System (APS), to control the Ink Delivery System, such as detecting
when the Intermediate Tank is full during a refilling process and stopping the ink pump.
Although the PIP sensor is calibrated (Gain and Offset) before its installation into the printer,
the Offset suffers a drift during the normal usage of the printer. The recalibration of the Offset
is done by comparing the PIP signal with the theoretical ink pressure at a well‐known point.
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INC, HP, "USER DIAGNOSTIC FOR PIP OFFSET WRONG CALIBRATION SITUATIONS", Technical Disclosure Commons, (January 31, 2022)