A closed-loop manufacturing system is designed to use small, low-cost radar to observe a manufacturing process and measure characteristics of a build product. The build data measured by the radar includes geometry, reflection characteristics, material density, and high resolution maps. A controller processes the build data to detect errors. Example errors include mistakes in geometry, delamination, curling, shrinkage, lack of material uniformity, air bubbles, inclusions, and contaminations in the build product. Based on the detected errors, the controller determines build corrections and reports the build corrections to the manufacturing process. Using radar, the closed-loop manufacturing system automatically detects and corrects errors, saving time and resources in additive and subtractive manufacturing.

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