Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards have defined call flows for user equipment (UE) handover scenarios within a Radio Access Technology (RAT) and across RATs for roaming and non-roaming use cases. The standards-based call flows define how to handle intra-RAT and inter-RAT handovers once a UE is attached in a home network or when a UE is attached in a partner network. However, 3GPP standards do not define call flows for instances in which a UE is attached in a home network and moves to a partner network or when a UE is attached in a partner network and moves back to a home network while performing a call, generally referred to as Inter-Public Land Mobile Network (inter-PLMN) mobility. Such inter-PLMN mobility is typically involved when a subscriber moves between state borders. This proposal defines call flows to support inter-PLMN mobility for 5G mobile networks.
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Abraham, Jis, "INTER-PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORK MOBILITY IN 5G NETWORKS", Technical Disclosure Commons, (October 04, 2021)