Server-side adaptive bit rate (ABR) encoding is a technique used to match video bandwidth to a user’s channel bandwidth. In ABR, an uploader streams in the video to a server at a high quality, while the downloader streams from the server the highest quality compatible with its bandwidth. As currently practiced, ABR is incompatible with end-to-end encryption since the server needs to decrypt the uploaded video to generate multiple lower bandwidth versions of the video.
This disclosure describes techniques for end-to-end encryption of video while making the video available to a receiver at multiple bit rates. The sender uploads to a server a single video stream comprising multiple, encrypted layers, each layer formed by encoding and encrypting the differences between previous layers, in a scalable manner. The receiver requests, decrypts, and decodes the number of layers compatible with its bandwidth, summing the decrypted and decoded layers to reconstruct the transmitted signal at an appropriate video quality.
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Anonymous, "End-to-end Encrypted Video with Adaptive Bit Rates", Technical Disclosure Commons, (April 26, 2021)