A solution, not based on VPN but on WebPush, is proposed for the delivery of call control features ( basic or enhanced) to users when connected to a corporate LAN, or working at home when a call server is in the cloud, ie when Signaling and Media are delivered in an IP environment. Signaling is often proprietary ( i.e.: not standardized) and Media uses UDP which is often blocked by NAT/Firewalls.
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Mourot, Patrick, "VPNless for the Cloud", Technical Disclosure Commons, (February 08, 2017)