Many Java programs are distributed in binary form without source code being made available. This means that it is a lot harder to do audits of these programs for for example copyright infringement detection or security issue detection. By examining individual class files inside a Java program and comparing these to a database of class files from known programs it is possible to make an educated guess of which programs or program fragments are used in the program, and possibly detect copyright infringements or trojaned versions of programs.
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Hemel, Armijn, "Finding (partial) code clones at method level in binary Java programs without access to source code to detect copyright infringements or security issues", Technical Disclosure Commons, (October 05, 2020)