Described herein are systems and techniques for joining two or more aluminum alloy products by spot welding and for non-destructively determining the size and quality of a weld nugget created during joining of two or more aluminum alloy products. The systems and techniques described herein may evaluate and/or monitor the welding discharge, which may correspond to a flow of electricity (i.e., electric current) between electrodes and the products to be joined, to determine and/or control a total amount of energy applied for generation of a spot welded joint. For example, the amount of current applied and the voltage at which the current is applied may be used to determine the instantaneous power applied and may, when monitored as a function of time, be used to determine the total energy applied during generation of a spot weld.
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Simon, Joerg; Liang, Zeqin; Hibert, Viktor; and Guerin, Mathilde, "Methods and Systems for Controlling and Determining Size and Quality of Weld Nuggets", Technical Disclosure Commons, (August 25, 2020)