Provided herein are methods of joining metal products without fracturing the metal products, including electrically treating (for example, electrically aging) the metal products and pierce-fastening the metal products or hemming the metal products. In some examples, electrically aging the metal products includes locally heating a joining point of the metal products and decreasing an activation energy of atoms within the metal products, thus controlling the kinetic activity of atoms within the metal products.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.