The high electric currents consumed by today’s microprocessors or other server chips can cause copper electromigration (undesired displacement of copper atoms) at the contact pads of the chips. Electromigration can result in the formation of voids, e.g., regions where the conductive material is partially or fully depleted, leading to malfunction. This disclosure describes techniques to reduce copper electromigration in integrated circuits by filling in vias for solder-ball openings with copper. Regions of current crowding at the copper-solder interface are effectively reinforced with a greater depth of copper, leading to extended device life.
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N/A, "Copper-filled Solder Openings in Ball Grid Arrays for Reduced Electromigration", Technical Disclosure Commons, (May 12, 2020)