Robert Bruce Wagstaff


Cast metal products, such as ingots, slabs, or plates, may have surface deformities due to contracting metal or otherwise. Surface deformities impact downstream processing of the cast metal products, such as in further rolling processes. Said cast metal products are typically scalped of an outer shell to eliminate surface deformities. However, scalping results in material lost and a lower resultant yield.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.