Fifth Generation (5G) networks implement packet re-reordering functionality at the New Radio Packet Data Convergence Protocol (NR-PDCP) layer, mitigating packet transmission issues, but potentially introducing undesirable delays in transmitting downlink packets to an access point. By introducing logistics to manage packet reordering, the transmission delays are reduced. For example, metadata is added to transmitted packets to assist the network stack at the access point in processing packets received out of order, allowing the packets to be provided to the stack relatively quickly.
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Ou, Todd; Żenczykowski, Maciej; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yu; and Chen, Yu-Cheng, "5G DL Out-Of-Order Delivery", Technical Disclosure Commons, (April 09, 2020)