Overcharging an electrochemical cell can cause explosions and is a known safety hazard. Overcharge-limiting circuits function optimally when an accurate measure of battery voltage is available. In practice, voltage measurement is inaccurate due to the significant currents that pass through the electrodes during charging. Due to the inaccuracy in voltage measurement, overcharge-limiting circuits are conservatively designed which leads to inefficiencies and inaccurate estimates of battery life and energy level. A three-electrode electrochemical cell has a third electrode in addition to an anode and a cathode. The third electrode absorbs little current and acts as a reference electrode to accurately measure voltage. The three-electrode configuration has not thus far found mass-market application due to difficulties in packaging. The configuration described in disclosure places and routes the reference electrode using the uncoated region of the anode or the cathode in a manner that achieves reliable mechanical integrity. The techniques enable accurate battery fuel (gas) gauging and can improve battery safety.

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