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When battery is stored for a period (e.g. stored NB for a period), voltage of each cell in

battery pack will result deviation. Higher the deviation (Delta V = voltage difference)

higher inconsistency of voltage among each cell will be realized and finally leading to shorter battery life. This phenomenon is called “CIM (Cell imbalance)”.

In order to decrease DeltaV (voltage difference), battery cells will be divided into several groups, then the consistency of each defined group with similar self-discharge rate.

The general parameters used to group cells are open-circuit voltage (OCV), capacity, impedance.

Self-discharge rate can be used as a grouping parameter to decrease battery cells DeltaV (voltage difference).

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