Nearly all programs for Android devices are distributed without source code being made available. This means that it is a lot harder to do audits of these programs for for example copyright infringement detection or security issue detection. By examining individual methods inside an Android program and comparing these to a database of methods from known programs it is possible to make an educated guess of which programs or program fragments are used in the program, and possibly detect copyright infringements or trojaned versions of programs.
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Hemel, Armijn, "Finding (partial) code clones at method level in Android programs without access to source code to detect copyright infringements or security issues", Technical Disclosure Commons, (September 16, 2019)