Techniques are described herein to distinguish fading for adaptive modulation in a Low power and Lossy Network (LLN). The techniques include splitting large frames into small fragments at the physical (PHY) or Media Access Control (MAC) level. Fragments are possibly acknowledged (e.g., using draft-ietf-6lofragment-recovery), which gives a bitwise signature of a transmission. Those signatures are appended to one another in a bit stream. In that bit stream, scattered losses mean fading whereas continuous losses for a brief time indicate a collision. In the former case, a node can increase power or decrease modulation and/or speed; however, in the latter case, it must not do so since this can aggravate the situation.
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Wu, Wenjia; Thubert, Pascal; Wei, Ling; and Zhao, Li, "NOVEL TECHNIQUES TO DISTINGUISH FADING FOR ADAPTIVE MODULATION IN A LOW POWER AND LOSSY NETWORK (LLN)", Technical Disclosure Commons, (August 26, 2019)