Methods and systems, including computer programs, for a cooling system that uses vapor compression, passing refrigerant through a compressor and a condenser and delivering the condensed refrigerant directly to a heat source. Prior to reaching the heat source, the refrigerant is passed through a pressure reduction system that allows for all of the refrigerant to be routed through the system at ambient temperature with no heat loss. After its expansion, the refrigerant drops in temperature and absorbs heat directly from the heat source to evaporate. This is in contrast to contemporary systems which perform vapor compression on a secondary coolant—typically water—that is then used to cool the refrigerant prior to circulation to the heat source. The described direct-contact evaporative cooling solution addresses increasingly critical issues of heat flux in systems such as high-power silicon packages, and allows these systems to operate at optimal efficiency. This cooling system eliminates the need for evaporator and expansion systems of a conventional cooling system, as well as the secondary loop through which the secondary coolant is circulated to the heat source. The improved system also allows a heat source to be cooled to lower than ambient temperatures, which is not feasible through other systems and techniques. Furthermore, the circulation of the refrigerant at ambient temperatures throughout the system reduces the losses in the refrigeration system to ambient heat and lessens insulation and isolation requirements. This feature also reduces the risks of condensation within the cooling distribution structure of the system as well as the risk of damage caused by condensation.
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"ELECTRONICS COOLING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON DIRECT EVAPORATION", Technical Disclosure Commons, (August 20, 2018)