With the increasing speed and power consumption of networking cards, EMC and thermal become more and more challenge when designing the products. Optical transceivers are the bottleneck for the thermal challenge because their working temperature is comparative low and there is usually very little space for the heat dissipation. The ESD, part of EMC test item, is dependent on the I/O design of a server and an add-in card. Since servers are usually surrounded with a metal chassis, the only way the electrical energy can escape or jump into the server is through the opening. If that energy can be spread across chassis ground before hitting sensitive electrical circuits, then ESD can be improved significantly.

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