360-degree video is divided into a plurality of fields of view from a playback device. For example, In the case of four fields of view, referred to as quadrants, the first quadrant is defined as the current field of view of the user, the second quadrant is to the user's right, the third quadrant is directly behind the user, and the fourth is to his left. During playback and buffering, a server decides what video quality (e.g., low/medium/high) to assign to each quadrant of the video based on available bandwidth and the likelihood of a viewer rotating the device to each of the quadrants.
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Agrawal, Anurag and Price, Thomas, "System for optimizing buffering of 360 degree video streams, by taking current viewing angle into account and buffering more distant viewing angles at separate bandwidths", Technical Disclosure Commons, (March 05, 2018)